Christmas the Birthday of Life
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Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia.
Archived from the original on January 11, Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved December 27, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Kessinger Publishing Company. Archived from the original on November 22, Towards the Origin of Christmas. Kok Pharos Publishing.
Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved December 25, John Archived September 18, , at the Wayback Machine A sun connection is possible because Christians considered Jesus to be the "Sun of righteousness" prophesied in Malachi "But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in its wings. You shall go out leaping like calves from the stall.
Biblical Archaeology Society. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved February 24, Therefore let us celebrate the festival Historical Dictionary of Catholicism. Retrieved December 23, The Origins of Christmas. Liturgical Press. Online here  Archived February 19, , at the Wayback Machine. Yale, p. Roll, Susan K. Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved June 20, Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved November 17, In: Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen , part 1.
Second edition. Note that the first edition, , doesn't have the discussion of Natalis Solis Invicti ; also Sol Invictus The Origins of the Liturgical Year. The Sun in the Art and Religions of Rome. Archived from the original on May 10, Westerfield The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought.
January , pp. Retrieved September 10, Christmas in America: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. History Today. Archived from the original on December 29, Retrieved December 28, There is no doubt that A Christmas Carol is first and foremost a story concerned with the Christian gospel of liberation by the grace of God, and with incarnational religion which refuses to drive a wedge between the world of spirit and the world of matter.
Both the Christmas dinners and the Christmas dinner-carriers are blessed; the cornucopia of Christmas food and feasting reflects both the goodness of creation and the joy of heaven. It is a significant sign of a shift in theological emphasis in the nineteenth century from a stress on the Atonement to a stress on the Incarnation, a stress which found outward and visible form in the sacramentalism of the Oxford Movement, the development of richer and more symbolic forms of worship, the building of neo-Gothic churches, and the revival and increasing centrality of the keeping of Christmas itself as a Christian festival.
In the course of the century, under the influence of the Oxford Movement's concern for the better observance of Christian festivals, Christmas became more and more prominent. By the later part of the century cathedrals provided special services and musical events, and might have revived ancient special charities for the poor — though we must not forget the problems for large: parish-church cathedrals like Manchester, which on one Christmas Day had no less than eighty couples coming to be married the signing of the registers lasted until four in the afternoon.
The popularity of Dickens' A Christmas Carol played a significant part in the changing consciousness of Christmas and the way in which it was celebrated.
The popularity of his public readings of the story is an indication of how much it resonated with the contemporary mood, and contributed to the increasing place of the Christmas celebration in both secular and religious ways that was firmly established by the end of the nineteenth century. January 11, January 1, John Milton. University Press of Kentucky. Milton was raised an Anglican, trained to become an Anglican minister, and remained an Anglican through the signing of the subscription books of Cambridge University in both and , which demanded an allegiance to the state church and its Thirty-nine Articles.fensterstudio.ru/components/qejawunek/tohu-encontrar-celular.php
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His father had wanted him to practice law but Milton considered writing poetry his life's work. At 21 years old, he wrote a poem, "On the morning of Christ's Nativity," a work that is still widely read during Christmas. Christmas: Festival of Incarnation. Worship: Reformed According to Scripture.
Westminster John Knox Press. Within a few years the Reformed church calendar was fairly well established. The heart of it was the weekly observance of the resurrection on the Lord's Day. Instead of liturgical seasons being observed, "the five evangelical feast days" were observed: Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost.
They were chosen because they were understood to mark the essential stages in the history of salvation. Journal of the History of Ideas.
However, when Thomas Mocket, rector of Gilston in Hertfordshire, decried such vices in a pamphlet to justify the parliamentary 'ban' of Christmas, effective since June Christmastide: its history, festivities and carols. London: John Russell Smith. Domestic Annals of Scotland , p. Archived from the original on May 19, Retrieved February 29, Scotland: a very short introduction. Very short introductions. The Victorian Christmas Book. The Diary of a Country Parson — Ayer Publishing. Merry Christmas! Harvard University Press. Moravian Christmas in the South. Christmas in Colonial and Early America.
World Book Encyclopedia.
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Carols were altered by substituting names of prominent political leaders for royal characters in the lyrics, such as the Three Kings. Church bells were melted down for their bronze to increase the national treasury, and religious services were banned on Christmas Day. The cake of kings, too, came under attack as a symbol of the royalty. It survived, however, for a while with a new name—the cake of equality.
Archived from the original on November 1, How did people celebrate the Christmas during the French Revolution? In white-knuckled terror behind closed doors. Churches across France were renamed "Temples of Reason" and the Notre Dame was "de-baptized" for the occasion. The Commune spared no expense: "The first festival of reason, which took place in Notre Dame, featured a fabricated mountain, with a temple of philosophy at its summit and a script borrowed from an opera libretto.
TUC press release. Archived from the original PDF on June 3, USA Today. Archived from the original on November 6, Retrieved April 30, What Dickens did advocate in his story was "the spirit of Christmas". Sociologist James Barnett has described it as Dickens's "Carol Philosophy", which "combined religious and secular attitudes toward to celebration into a humanitarian pattern. It excoriated individual selfishness and extolled the virtues of brotherhood, kindness, and generosity at Christmas. Dickens preached that at Christmas men should forget self and think of others, especially the poor and the unfortunate.
A Christmas Carol. Broadview Press.
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Wordplay: origins, meanings, and usage of the English language. University of Toronto Press, , p. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.